This course consists of four laboratory experiments that concentrate on radio instrumentation and laboratory techniques. We will build receiving, observing, and data analysis systems for two telescopes: a single-dish 21-cm line system, and a 10.7-GHz interferometer. We will use these telescopes for astronomical observing projects including structure of the Milky Way galaxy, precise position measurement of several radio sources, and measurement of the radio brightness distributions of the sun and moon with high angular resolution. There is a heavy emphasis on digital data acquisition, software development in the Python language, and high-quality written reports.

## Topics by Date

### Lab 1 (Exploring Digital Sampling, Fourier Transforms, and both DSB and SSB Mixers), Due Feb 9, 1:00p

#### Lab 1, Week 2 (Jan 27): DSB and SSB Mixers

• Theory and Background:
• Demos and Tutorials
• In class:
• Lecture: Introduction to DSB and SSB Mixers
• Lecture: Discrete Fourier Transforms and the Convolution Theorem
• Show and Tell (10m per group)

### Lab 2 (Astronomy with the 21cm Line; Some Microwave Electronics), due Mar 2, 1:00p

#### Lab 2, Week 1 (Feb 9): 21cm Line and Waveguides

• Theory and Background:
• Demos and Tutorials
• Python Tutorial Part 3: Functions, Modules, and Objects
• Matrix Math with Numpy
• In class:
• Introduction to Horn and Receiver
• Time
• Coordinates

#### Lab 2, Week 2 (Feb 16): Collect and Analyze Data

• Theory and Background
• Demos and Tutorials
• In Class:
• Show and Tell
• Waveguides, Transmission Lines, and Rope
• Fitting Gaussians and Polynomials, ugradio.gauss

### Lab 3 (Radio Interferometry at X Band), due Apr 6, 1:00p

#### Lab 3 Week 1 (Mar 2): Interferometer

• Theory and Background
• In Class:
• Tour of Rooftop Interferometer
• Exercise Ball Coordinates
• Interferometry with Strings

#### Lab 3 Week 2 (Mar 9): Collect and Analyze Data

• Theory and Background
• In Class:
• Show and Tell
• Controlling the Telescope
• Tracking the Sun
• Scheduling Observations

#### Lab 3 Week 3 (Mar 16): Collect and Analyze Data

• Theory and Background
• In Class:
• Show and Tell
• Linear Least-Squares in Python
• Minimizing Chi-Square]
• Noise in Observations

#### Lab 3 Week 4 (Mar 30): Write Lab Report

• Theory and Background
• In Class:
• Show and Tell
• Photon bucket demo
• Lab 3 Due Apr 7, 1:00p

### Lab 4 (Mapping the HI Line: the Galaxy and Supershells), due May 4, 1:00p

#### Lab 4 Week 1 (Apr 6): Leuschner Dish

• Theory and Background
• In Class:
• Trip to Leuschner: Class will go later than usual
• drive mechanism (how the dish moves)
• feed (notice probes) and cables
• IF setup (one channel for OH, one for HI)
• interacting with a CASPER spectrometer
• pointing control
• spatial sampling with dish

#### Lab 4 Week 2 (Apr 13): Collect and Analyze Data

• Theory and Background
• In Class:
• Show and Tell
• spatial sampling with a dish
• interpolation
• projection

#### Lab 4 Week 3 (Apr 20): Collect and Analyze Data

• Theory and Background
• In Class:
• Show and Tell
• close-out plan
• computing doppler width for a line of sight (assuming circular motion)
• calibrating spectra
• converting spectra to hydrogen