# Difference between revisions of "Undergraduate Radio Lab"

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== Topics by Date == | == Topics by Date == | ||

− | === Lab 1 ([https://github.com/AaronParsons/ugradio/blob/master/lab_mixers/allmixers.pdf Exploring Digital Sampling, Fourier Transforms, and both DSB and SSB Mixers]), Due Feb | + | === Lab 1 ([https://github.com/AaronParsons/ugradio/blob/master/lab_mixers/allmixers.pdf Exploring Digital Sampling, Fourier Transforms, and both DSB and SSB Mixers]), Due Feb 11, 1:00p === |

− | ==== Lab 1, Week 1 (Jan | + | ==== Lab 1, Week 1 (Jan 21): Sampling and Power Spectra ==== |

* Resources and Handouts | * Resources and Handouts | ||

** [[Nyquist Sampling]] | ** [[Nyquist Sampling]] | ||

Line 57: | Line 57: | ||

*** PicoScope 2206a | *** PicoScope 2206a | ||

− | ==== Lab 1, Week 2 (Jan | + | ==== Lab 1, Week 2 (Jan 28): DSB and SSB Mixers ==== |

* Theory and Background: | * Theory and Background: | ||

** [[Heterodyne Mixers]] | ** [[Heterodyne Mixers]] | ||

Line 71: | Line 71: | ||

** Lecture: Discrete Fourier Transforms and the Convolution Theorem | ** Lecture: Discrete Fourier Transforms and the Convolution Theorem | ||

− | ==== Lab 1, Week 3 (Feb | + | ==== Lab 1, Week 3 (Feb 4): More Mixers, and Lab Reports ==== |

* Theory and Background | * Theory and Background | ||

** [[LaTeX]] | ** [[LaTeX]] | ||

Line 79: | Line 79: | ||

** Show and Tell | ** Show and Tell | ||

** Writing Lab Reports | ** Writing Lab Reports | ||

− | * Lab 1 Due Feb | + | * Lab 1 Due Feb 11, 1:30p |

--------- | --------- | ||

− | === Lab 2 ([https://github.com/AaronParsons/ugradio/blob/master/lab_bighorn/bighorn.pdf Astronomy with the 21cm Line; Some Microwave Electronics]), due Mar | + | === Lab 2 ([https://github.com/AaronParsons/ugradio/blob/master/lab_bighorn/bighorn.pdf Astronomy with the 21cm Line; Some Microwave Electronics]), due Mar 3, 1:00p === |

− | ==== Lab 2, Week 1 (Feb | + | ==== Lab 2, Week 1 (Feb 11): 21cm Line and Waveguides ==== |

* Theory and Background: | * Theory and Background: | ||

** [https://github.com/AaronParsons/ugradio/blob/master/lab_bighorn/cal_intensity.pdf Calibrating the Intensity and Shape of Spectral Lines] | ** [https://github.com/AaronParsons/ugradio/blob/master/lab_bighorn/cal_intensity.pdf Calibrating the Intensity and Shape of Spectral Lines] | ||

Line 98: | Line 98: | ||

** Doppler Corrections, ugradio.doppler | ** Doppler Corrections, ugradio.doppler | ||

− | ==== Lab 2, Week 2 (Feb | + | ==== Lab 2, Week 2 (Feb 18): Collect and Analyze Data ==== |

* Theory and Background | * Theory and Background | ||

** [[Coordinates]] | ** [[Coordinates]] | ||

Line 110: | Line 110: | ||

** Fitting Gaussians and Polynomials, ugradio.gauss | ** Fitting Gaussians and Polynomials, ugradio.gauss | ||

− | ==== Lab 2, Week 3 (Feb | + | ==== Lab 2, Week 3 (Feb 25): Write Lab Report ==== |

* Theory and Background | * Theory and Background | ||

** [https://github.com/AaronParsons/ugradio/blob/master/least_squares/lsfit_2008.pdf Least-Squares and Chi-Square for the Budding Aficionado: Art and Practice] | ** [https://github.com/AaronParsons/ugradio/blob/master/least_squares/lsfit_2008.pdf Least-Squares and Chi-Square for the Budding Aficionado: Art and Practice] | ||

Line 116: | Line 116: | ||

** Show and Tell | ** Show and Tell | ||

** Least Squares Part 2 | ** Least Squares Part 2 | ||

− | * Lab 2 Due Mar | + | * Lab 2 Due Mar 3, 1:00p |

--------- | --------- | ||

− | === Lab 3 ([https://github.com/AaronParsons/ugradio/blob/master/lab_interf/interf.pdf Radio Interferometry at X Band]), due Apr | + | === Lab 3 ([https://github.com/AaronParsons/ugradio/blob/master/lab_interf/interf.pdf Radio Interferometry at X Band]), due Apr 7, 1:00p === |

− | ==== Lab 3 Week 1 (Mar | + | ==== Lab 3 Week 1 (Mar 3): Interferometer ==== |

* Theory and Background | * Theory and Background | ||

** [[Coordinates]] | ** [[Coordinates]] | ||

Line 131: | Line 131: | ||

** Interferometry with Strings | ** Interferometry with Strings | ||

− | ==== Lab 3 Week 2 (Mar | + | ==== Lab 3 Week 2 (Mar 10): Collect and Analyze Data ==== |

* Theory and Background | * Theory and Background | ||

** [[Measurement Equation]] | ** [[Measurement Equation]] | ||

Line 141: | Line 141: | ||

** Scheduling Observations | ** Scheduling Observations | ||

− | ==== Lab 3 Week 3 (Mar | + | ==== Lab 3 Week 3 (Mar 17): Collect and Analyze Data ==== |

* Theory and Background | * Theory and Background | ||

** [[Basic Interferometry II]] | ** [[Basic Interferometry II]] | ||

Line 151: | Line 151: | ||

** Noise in Observations | ** Noise in Observations | ||

− | ==== No class (Mar 26) ==== | + | ==== No class (Mar 24, 26) ==== |

− | ==== Lab 3 Week 4 ( | + | ==== Lab 3 Week 4 (Mar 31): Write Lab Report ==== |

* Theory and Background | * Theory and Background | ||

*** [[Correlators]] | *** [[Correlators]] | ||

Line 160: | Line 160: | ||

** Show and Tell | ** Show and Tell | ||

** Photon bucket demo | ** Photon bucket demo | ||

− | * Lab 3 Due Apr | + | * Lab 3 Due Apr 7, 1:00p |

--------- | --------- | ||

− | === Lab 4 ([https://github.com/AaronParsons/ugradio/blob/master/lab_dish/HI1.pdf Mapping the HI Line: the Galaxy and Supershells]), due May | + | === Lab 4 ([https://github.com/AaronParsons/ugradio/blob/master/lab_dish/HI1.pdf Mapping the HI Line: the Galaxy and Supershells]), due May 5, 1:00p === |

==== Useful Links ==== | ==== Useful Links ==== | ||

Line 171: | Line 171: | ||

[http://leuschner.berkeley.edu:8080 Leuschner WebCam] | [http://leuschner.berkeley.edu:8080 Leuschner WebCam] | ||

− | ==== Lab 4 Week 1 (Apr | + | ==== Lab 4 Week 1 (Apr 7): Leuschner Dish ==== |

* Theory and Background | * Theory and Background | ||

** [[Specific Intensity]] | ** [[Specific Intensity]] | ||

Line 185: | Line 185: | ||

** spatial sampling with dish | ** spatial sampling with dish | ||

− | ==== Lab 4 Week 2 (Apr | + | ==== Lab 4 Week 2 (Apr 14): Collect and Analyze Data ==== |

* Theory and Background | * Theory and Background | ||

** [[21cm Transition]] | ** [[21cm Transition]] | ||

Line 196: | Line 196: | ||

** computing doppler width for a line of sight (assuming circular motion) | ** computing doppler width for a line of sight (assuming circular motion) | ||

− | ==== Lab 4 Week 3 (Apr | + | ==== Lab 4 Week 3 (Apr 21): Collect and Analyze Data ==== |

* Theory and Background | * Theory and Background | ||

** [[Emission Line Observing]] | ** [[Emission Line Observing]] | ||

Line 208: | Line 208: | ||

** converting spectra to hydrogen | ** converting spectra to hydrogen | ||

− | ==== Lab 4 Week 4 (Apr | + | ==== Lab 4 Week 4 (Apr 28): Write Lab Report ==== |

* Theory and Background | * Theory and Background | ||

** [https://github.com/AaronParsons/ugradio/blob/master/lab_bighorn/cal_intensity.pdf Calibrating the Intensity and Shape of Spectral Lines (Carl Heiles)] | ** [https://github.com/AaronParsons/ugradio/blob/master/lab_bighorn/cal_intensity.pdf Calibrating the Intensity and Shape of Spectral Lines (Carl Heiles)] | ||

Line 214: | Line 214: | ||

** Show and Tell | ** Show and Tell | ||

** displaying information in image form | ** displaying information in image form | ||

− | ** Lab 4 Due May | + | ** Lab 4 Due May 5, 1:00p |

## Revision as of 11:50, 13 January 2020

This course consists of four laboratory experiments that concentrate on radio instrumentation and laboratory techniques. We will build receiving, observing, and data analysis systems for two telescopes: a single-dish 21-cm line system, and a 10.7-GHz interferometer. We will use these telescopes for astronomical observing projects including structure of the Milky Way galaxy, precise position measurement of several radio sources, and measurement of the radio brightness distributions of the sun and moon with high angular resolution. There is a heavy emphasis on digital data acquisition, software development in the Python language, and high-quality written reports.

### Class Programmatics

- Class Code Repository: http://github.com/AaronParsons/ugradio
- Syllabus
- Class Hours:
- Tuesday 2-5pm

- Office Hours:
- Aaron (aparsons at berkeley): Fri 3p-4p
- Bryan (bbrzycki at berkeley): Mon 1p-2p
- Jonathan (jon.880 at berkeley: Thur 11a-12p

- Lab1 Groups:
- Compas (Matthew, Arthur, Oscar)
- RadioGaga (Melissa, Costas, Sowmya, Sean)
- Anoising (Grace, Scout, Cee, Adam)
- IHeartRadio (Andrew, Matt, Christine, Dylan)
- ? (Delphine, Romain)

### Experiments

- Lab 1: Exploring Digital Sampling, Fourier Transforms, and both DSB and SSB Mixers
- Lab 2: Astronomy with the 21cm Line; Some Microwave Electronics
- Lab 3: Radio Interferometry at X Band
- Lab 4: Mapping the HI Line: the Galaxy and Supershells

### General Skills Used Through-Out Course

- Python Installation and Basic Programming
- Introduction to Python and Plotting
- Unix Primer
- Unix Text Editors
- LaTeX
- Revision Control
- Unit Testing

## Topics by Date

### Lab 1 (Exploring Digital Sampling, Fourier Transforms, and both DSB and SSB Mixers), Due Feb 11, 1:00p

#### Lab 1, Week 1 (Jan 21): Sampling and Power Spectra

- Resources and Handouts
- Demos and Tutorials
- In class:
- Astrobaki, Syllabus, Office Hours
- Getting accounts (premade by Bill Boyd, change password)
- Lab access (email Mark Hayden)
- EM waves from sky to wire
- Nyquist Sampling and aliasing
- Fourier Transform
- Lab Hardware
- PicoScope 2206a

#### Lab 1, Week 2 (Jan 28): DSB and SSB Mixers

- Theory and Background:
- Demos and Tutorials
- In class:
- Lecture: Introduction to DSB and SSB Mixers
- Show and Tell (10m per group)
- Lecture: Discrete Fourier Transforms and the Convolution Theorem

#### Lab 1, Week 3 (Feb 4): More Mixers, and Lab Reports

- Theory and Background
- LaTeX
- Introduction to Python and Plotting, second pass

- In Class:
- Lecture: One more pass on Convolution Theorem, Heterodyne Mixers, and DFTs
- Show and Tell
- Writing Lab Reports

- Lab 1 Due Feb 11, 1:30p

### Lab 2 (Astronomy with the 21cm Line; Some Microwave Electronics), due Mar 3, 1:00p

#### Lab 2, Week 1 (Feb 11): 21cm Line and Waveguides

- Theory and Background:
- Demos and Tutorials
- Python Tutorial Part 3: Functions, Modules, and Objects
- Central Limit Theorem and Averaging

- In class:
- Introduction to Horn and Receiver
- Time
- Doppler Corrections, ugradio.doppler

#### Lab 2, Week 2 (Feb 18): Collect and Analyze Data

- Theory and Background
- Demos and Tutorials
- Matrix Math with Numpy

- In Class:
- Show and Tell
- Waveguides, Transmission Lines, and Rope
- Fitting Gaussians and Polynomials, ugradio.gauss

#### Lab 2, Week 3 (Feb 25): Write Lab Report

- Theory and Background
- In Class:
- Show and Tell
- Least Squares Part 2

- Lab 2 Due Mar 3, 1:00p

### Lab 3 (Radio Interferometry at X Band), due Apr 7, 1:00p

#### Lab 3 Week 1 (Mar 3): Interferometer

- Theory and Background
- In Class:
- Tour of Rooftop Interferometer
- Exercise Ball Coordinates
- Interferometry with Strings

#### Lab 3 Week 2 (Mar 10): Collect and Analyze Data

- Theory and Background
- In Class:
- Show and Tell
- Controlling the Telescope
- Tracking the Sun
- Scheduling Observations

#### Lab 3 Week 3 (Mar 17): Collect and Analyze Data

- Theory and Background
- In Class:
- Show and Tell
- Linear Least-Squares in Python
- Minimizing Chi-Square
- Noise in Observations

#### No class (Mar 24, 26)

#### Lab 3 Week 4 (Mar 31): Write Lab Report

- Theory and Background
- In Class:
- Show and Tell
- Photon bucket demo

- Lab 3 Due Apr 7, 1:00p

### Lab 4 (Mapping the HI Line: the Galaxy and Supershells), due May 5, 1:00p

#### Useful Links

#### Lab 4 Week 1 (Apr 7): Leuschner Dish

- Theory and Background
- In Class:
- Trip to Leuschner: Class will go later than usual
- drive mechanism (how the dish moves)
- feed (notice probes) and cables
- IF setup (one channel for OH, one for HI)
- show spectrum
- demo action
- spatial sampling with dish

#### Lab 4 Week 2 (Apr 14): Collect and Analyze Data

- Theory and Background
- In Class:
- Show and Tell
- pointing control
- how to take data
- computing doppler width for a line of sight (assuming circular motion)

#### Lab 4 Week 3 (Apr 21): Collect and Analyze Data

- Theory and Background
- In Class:
- Show and Tell
- close-out plan
- calibrating spectra
- converting spectra to hydrogen

#### Lab 4 Week 4 (Apr 28): Write Lab Report

- Theory and Background
- In Class:
- Show and Tell
- displaying information in image form
- Lab 4 Due May 5, 1:00p

## Unused but Useful?

- Radiometer Equation
- Quantization and Rounding
- Reciprocity Theorem
- Dipole Antennas
- Impedance of Free Space
- Radiometer Equation Applied to Telescopes
- Radiometer Equation Applied to Interferometers
- Fringe Stopping
- Direction Dependent Beams
- Self Calibration
- Flux Calibration
- Gridding
- Earth Rotation Synthesis
- Delay Imaging