# Difference between revisions of "Undergraduate Radio Lab"

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=== Class Programmatics === | === Class Programmatics === | ||

* Class Code Repository: [http://github.com/AaronParsons/ugradio http://github.com/AaronParsons/ugradio] | * Class Code Repository: [http://github.com/AaronParsons/ugradio http://github.com/AaronParsons/ugradio] | ||

− | * [https://github.com/AaronParsons/ugradio/raw/ | + | * [https://github.com/AaronParsons/ugradio/raw/main/schedule/syllabus_2022_spring.docx Syllabus] |

* [https://berkeley.zoom.us/j/3587609756 Zoom Room: 358 760 9756] | * [https://berkeley.zoom.us/j/3587609756 Zoom Room: 358 760 9756] | ||

* Bcourses: [https://bcourses.berkeley.edu/courses/1512067 1512067] | * Bcourses: [https://bcourses.berkeley.edu/courses/1512067 1512067] | ||

− | * Discord: https://discord.gg/ | + | * Discord: https://discord.gg/54m6yjsFHN |

+ | * Sign-up sheet for lab: https://calendar.google.com/calendar/u/0/selfsched?sstoken=UUhoRVItYjh2bFA3fGRlZmF1bHR8MDlkOGRkN2MzNmVlMDM1ZTYzNzJiZTcxOTRkNmY1Y2Q | ||

* Class Hours: | * Class Hours: | ||

** Tuesday/Thursday 1:30-3:30pm | ** Tuesday/Thursday 1:30-3:30pm | ||

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=== Experiments === | === Experiments === | ||

− | * Lab 1: [https://github.com/AaronParsons/ugradio/blob/ | + | * Lab 1: [https://github.com/AaronParsons/ugradio/blob/main/lab_mixers/allmixers.pdf Exploring Digital Sampling, Fourier Transforms, and both DSB and SSB Mixers] |

− | * Lab 2: [https://github.com/AaronParsons/ugradio/blob/ | + | * Lab 2: [https://github.com/AaronParsons/ugradio/blob/main/lab_bighorn/bighorn.pdf Astronomy with the 21cm Line; Some Microwave Electronics] |

− | * Lab 3: [https://github.com/AaronParsons/ugradio/blob/ | + | * Lab 3: [https://github.com/AaronParsons/ugradio/blob/main/lab_interf/interf.pdf Radio Interferometry at X Band] |

− | * Lab 4: [https://github.com/AaronParsons/ugradio/blob/ | + | * Lab 4: [https://github.com/AaronParsons/ugradio/blob/main/lab_dish/HI1.pdf Mapping the HI Line: the Galaxy and Supershells] |

===Getting Set Up=== | ===Getting Set Up=== | ||

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* Programming in Python | * Programming in Python | ||

** [[Python Installation and Basic Programming]] | ** [[Python Installation and Basic Programming]] | ||

− | ** [https://github.com/AaronParsons/ugradio/blob/ | + | ** [https://github.com/AaronParsons/ugradio/blob/main/jupyter_tutorials/lab1/python_intro.ipynb Introduction to Python and Plotting] |

* Software Engineering | * Software Engineering | ||

** [[Revision Control]] | ** [[Revision Control]] | ||

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== Topics by Date == | == Topics by Date == | ||

− | === Lab 1 ([https://github.com/AaronParsons/ugradio/blob/ | + | === Lab 1 ([https://github.com/AaronParsons/ugradio/blob/main/lab_mixers/allmixers.pdf Exploring Digital Sampling, Fourier Transforms, and both DSB and SSB Mixers]), Due Feb 8, 1:30p === |

==== Lab 1, Week 1 (Jan 18): Sampling and Power Spectra ==== | ==== Lab 1, Week 1 (Jan 18): Sampling and Power Spectra ==== | ||

* Resources and Handouts | * Resources and Handouts | ||

Line 62: | Line 63: | ||

* Demos and Tutorials | * Demos and Tutorials | ||

− | ** [https://github.com/AaronParsons/ugradio/blob/ | + | ** [https://github.com/AaronParsons/ugradio/blob/main/jupyter_tutorials/lab1/python_intro.ipynb Introduction to Python and Plotting] |

− | ** [https://github.com/AaronParsons/ugradio/blob/ | + | ** [https://github.com/AaronParsons/ugradio/blob/main/jupyter_tutorials/lab1/Nyquist%20Sampling%20and%20Aliasing.ipynb Aliasing Demo] (on [http://datahub.berkeley.edu/user-redirect/interact?account=AaronParsons&repo=ugradio&branch=main&path=jupyter_tutorials/Nyquist%20Samplling%20and%20Aliasing.ipynb datahub.berkeley.edu]) |

* In class: | * In class: | ||

** Astrobaki, Syllabus, Office Hours | ** Astrobaki, Syllabus, Office Hours | ||

− | ** Getting accounts (premade by Bill Boyd, change password) | + | ** Getting accounts (premade by Bill Boyd, change password with <tt>passwd</tt> command) |

** Lab access (see [[Getting Started in the Undergraduate Radio Lab]]) | ** Lab access (see [[Getting Started in the Undergraduate Radio Lab]]) | ||

** Class philosophy and workflow | ** Class philosophy and workflow | ||

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** Lab Hardware | ** Lab Hardware | ||

*** PicoScope 2206a | *** PicoScope 2206a | ||

+ | *** Raspberry Pi + [[NESDR Smart]] | ||

** Data Challenge | ** Data Challenge | ||

− | *** [https://github.com/AaronParsons/ugradio/blob/ | + | *** [https://github.com/AaronParsons/ugradio/blob/main/lab_mixers/secret_message.npz Secret Message] |

− | ** [https://youtu.be/ | + | ** [https://youtu.be/uH-dQnq7ZD4 Lecture 1 Zoom recording] (2021 is [https://youtu.be/Yb4K8t6SG4k here]) |

− | ** [https://youtu.be/ | + | ** [https://youtu.be/LtEzUnp_E9E Lecture 2 Zoom recording] (2021 is [https://youtu.be/oJplegmHeAI here]) |

==== Lab 1, Week 2 (Jan 26): DSB and SSB Mixers ==== | ==== Lab 1, Week 2 (Jan 26): DSB and SSB Mixers ==== | ||

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** [[Convolution Theorem]] | ** [[Convolution Theorem]] | ||

** [[Fast Fourier Transform]] | ** [[Fast Fourier Transform]] | ||

− | ** [https://github.com/AaronParsons/ugradio/blob/ | + | ** [https://github.com/AaronParsons/ugradio/blob/main/dft_intro/fourierc.pdf Spectral Analysis with Discrete Fourier Transforms] |

* Demos and Tutorials | * Demos and Tutorials | ||

− | ** [https://github.com/AaronParsons/ugradio/blob/ | + | ** [https://github.com/AaronParsons/ugradio/blob/main/jupyter_tutorials/lab1/Convolutions%20and%20Correlations.ipynb Convolutions and Correlations ] |

− | ** [https://github.com/AaronParsons/ugradio/blob/ | + | ** [https://github.com/AaronParsons/ugradio/blob/main/jupyter_tutorials/lab1/Sec%204.%20In%20the%20mind.ipynb In the Mind: Introduction to the Fourier Transform ] |

− | ** [https://github.com/AaronParsons/ugradio/blob/ | + | ** [https://github.com/AaronParsons/ugradio/blob/main/jupyter_tutorials/lab1/datatype_demo.ipynb Mommy Fortuna's Midnight Carnival of Python Oddities] |

− | ** [[Data Representations]], with handout on [https://github.com/AaronParsons/ugradio/blob/ | + | ** [[Data Representations]], with handout on [https://github.com/AaronParsons/ugradio/blob/main/pythonprimer/datatypes.pdf Data Types and Organizational Structures] |

** Data Challenge | ** Data Challenge | ||

− | *** [https://github.com/AaronParsons/ugradio/blob/ | + | *** [https://github.com/AaronParsons/ugradio/blob/main/lab_mixers/mixed_message.npz Secret Message 2] |

* In class: | * In class: | ||

− | ** [https://youtu.be/ | + | ** [https://youtu.be/dsCZ_F2HEVY Lecture 3 Zoom recording] (2021 is [https://youtu.be/Ut_jTUoqcd8 here]) |

** [https://youtu.be/ZxAWNiisn3Y Lecture 4: Show and Tell] | ** [https://youtu.be/ZxAWNiisn3Y Lecture 4: Show and Tell] | ||

** Lecture: Introduction to DSB and SSB Mixers | ** Lecture: Introduction to DSB and SSB Mixers | ||

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* Theory and Background | * Theory and Background | ||

** [[LaTeX]] | ** [[LaTeX]] | ||

− | ** [https://github.com/AaronParsons/ugradio/blob/ | + | ** [https://github.com/AaronParsons/ugradio/blob/main/jupyter_tutorials/lab1/python_intro.ipynb Introduction to Python and Plotting], second pass |

− | ** [https://github.com/AaronParsons/ugradio/tree/ | + | ** [https://github.com/AaronParsons/ugradio/tree/main/latex_template/lab1 LaTex Template] Template you may use for your lab report |

*** [https://www.overleaf.com/read/hvrwkmfkvkhg Overleaf version of the lab template] | *** [https://www.overleaf.com/read/hvrwkmfkvkhg Overleaf version of the lab template] | ||

* In Class: | * In Class: | ||

− | ** Lecture: One more pass on [[Convolution Theorem]], [[Heterodyne Mixers]], and [https://github.com/AaronParsons/ugradio/blob/ | + | ** Lecture: One more pass on [[Convolution Theorem]], [[Heterodyne Mixers]], and [https://github.com/AaronParsons/ugradio/blob/main/dft_intro/fourierc.pdf DFTs] |

** [https://youtu.be/igZPQQ-6ieo Lecture 5] | ** [https://youtu.be/igZPQQ-6ieo Lecture 5] | ||

** [https://youtu.be/53CZj1CCEm0 Lecture 6] | ** [https://youtu.be/53CZj1CCEm0 Lecture 6] | ||

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--------- | --------- | ||

− | === Lab 2 ([https://github.com/AaronParsons/ugradio/blob/ | + | === Lab 2 ([https://github.com/AaronParsons/ugradio/blob/main/lab_bighorn/bighorn.pdf Astronomy with the 21cm Line; Some Microwave Electronics]), due Mar 1, 1:30p === |

==== Lab 2, Week 1 (Feb 8): 21cm Line and Waveguides ==== | ==== Lab 2, Week 1 (Feb 8): 21cm Line and Waveguides ==== | ||

* Theory and Background: | * Theory and Background: | ||

− | ** [https://github.com/AaronParsons/ugradio/blob/ | + | ** [https://github.com/AaronParsons/ugradio/blob/main/lab_bighorn/cal_intensity.pdf Calibrating the Intensity and Shape of Spectral Lines] |

** [[Specific Intensity]] | ** [[Specific Intensity]] | ||

** [[21cm Transition]] | ** [[21cm Transition]] | ||

Line 138: | Line 140: | ||

** [http://ugastro.berkeley.edu/radio/2017/handout_links/RWvD.pdf Fields and Waves in Communication Electronics (Ramo, Whinney, and Van Duzer)] | ** [http://ugastro.berkeley.edu/radio/2017/handout_links/RWvD.pdf Fields and Waves in Communication Electronics (Ramo, Whinney, and Van Duzer)] | ||

** [[Central Limit Theorem]] and [[Random Walks]] | ** [[Central Limit Theorem]] and [[Random Walks]] | ||

− | ** [https://github.com/AaronParsons/ugradio/blob/ | + | ** [https://github.com/AaronParsons/ugradio/blob/main/least_squares/lsfit_lite.pdf Least Squares Lite for the Budding Aficionado: Art and Practice] |

* Demos and Tutorials | * Demos and Tutorials | ||

− | ** [https://github.com/AaronParsons/ugradio/blob/ | + | ** [https://github.com/AaronParsons/ugradio/blob/main/jupyter_tutorials/lab2/Central%20Limit%20Theorem%20and%20Averaging.ipynb Central Limit Theorem and Averaging] |

* In Class: | * In Class: | ||

** Show and Tell | ** Show and Tell | ||

Line 150: | Line 152: | ||

==== Lab 2, Week 3 (Feb 22): Write Lab Report ==== | ==== Lab 2, Week 3 (Feb 22): Write Lab Report ==== | ||

* Theory and Background | * Theory and Background | ||

− | ** [https://github.com/AaronParsons/ugradio/blob/ | + | ** [https://github.com/AaronParsons/ugradio/blob/main/least_squares/lsfit_2008.pdf Least-Squares and Chi-Square for the Budding Aficionado: Art and Practice] |

* In Class: | * In Class: | ||

− | ** [https://github.com/AaronParsons/ugradio/blob/ | + | ** [https://github.com/AaronParsons/ugradio/blob/main/jupyter_tutorials/lab2/chisq_intro.ipynb Chi-Square Jupyter Notebook] |

** Show and Tell | ** Show and Tell | ||

** Least Squares Part 2 | ** Least Squares Part 2 | ||

Line 160: | Line 162: | ||

--------- | --------- | ||

− | === Lab 3 ([https://github.com/AaronParsons/ugradio/blob/ | + | === Lab 3 ([https://github.com/AaronParsons/ugradio/blob/main/lab_interf/interf.pdf Radio Interferometry at X Band]), due Apr 5, 1:00p === |

==== Lab 3 Week 1 (Mar 1): Interferometer ==== | ==== Lab 3 Week 1 (Mar 1): Interferometer ==== | ||

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--------- | --------- | ||

− | === Lab 4 ([https://github.com/AaronParsons/ugradio/blob/ | + | === Lab 4 ([https://github.com/AaronParsons/ugradio/blob/main/lab_dish/HI1.pdf Mapping the HI Line: the Galaxy and Supershells]), due May 3, 1:30p === |

==== Useful Links ==== | ==== Useful Links ==== | ||

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==== Lab 4 Week 4 (Apr 26): Write Lab Report ==== | ==== Lab 4 Week 4 (Apr 26): Write Lab Report ==== | ||

* Theory and Background | * Theory and Background | ||

− | ** [https://github.com/AaronParsons/ugradio/blob/ | + | ** [https://github.com/AaronParsons/ugradio/blob/main/lab_bighorn/cal_intensity.pdf Calibrating the Intensity and Shape of Spectral Lines (Carl Heiles)] |

* In Class: | * In Class: | ||

** Show and Tell | ** Show and Tell |

## Latest revision as of 18:19, 25 January 2022

This course consists of four laboratory experiments that concentrate on radio instrumentation and laboratory techniques. We will build receiving, observing, and data analysis systems for two telescopes: a single-dish 21-cm line system, and a 10.7-GHz interferometer. We will use these telescopes for astronomical observing projects including structure of the Milky Way galaxy, precise position measurement of several radio sources, and measurement of the radio brightness distributions of the sun and moon with high angular resolution. There is a heavy emphasis on digital data acquisition, software development in the Python language, and high-quality written reports.

### Class Programmatics[edit]

- Class Code Repository: http://github.com/AaronParsons/ugradio
- Syllabus
- Zoom Room: 358 760 9756
- Bcourses: 1512067
- Discord: https://discord.gg/54m6yjsFHN
- Sign-up sheet for lab: https://calendar.google.com/calendar/u/0/selfsched?sstoken=UUhoRVItYjh2bFA3fGRlZmF1bHR8MDlkOGRkN2MzNmVlMDM1ZTYzNzJiZTcxOTRkNmY1Y2Q
- Class Hours:
- Tuesday/Thursday 1:30-3:30pm

- Office Hours:
- Aaron Parsons (aparsons at berkeley): TBD, or by appointment, in standard Zoom Room: 358 760 9756
- Christian Bye (chbye at berkeley): TBD or by appointment (Through Discord Office Hours Channel or Zoom: 372 207 8992)
- Mine Gokcen (minegokcen at berkeley):
- Frank Latora (fjlatora at berkeley):

- Lab Groups:
- Group 1
- Group 2
- Group 3
- Group 4
- Group 5

### Experiments[edit]

- Lab 1: Exploring Digital Sampling, Fourier Transforms, and both DSB and SSB Mixers
- Lab 2: Astronomy with the 21cm Line; Some Microwave Electronics
- Lab 3: Radio Interferometry at X Band
- Lab 4: Mapping the HI Line: the Galaxy and Supershells

### Getting Set Up[edit]

### General Skills Used Through-Out Course[edit]

- Navigating Linux/Unix-like Operating Systems
- Programming in Python
- Software Engineering
- Report Writing

## Topics by Date[edit]

### Lab 1 (Exploring Digital Sampling, Fourier Transforms, and both DSB and SSB Mixers), Due Feb 8, 1:30p[edit]

#### Lab 1, Week 1 (Jan 18): Sampling and Power Spectra[edit]

- Resources and Handouts

- Demos and Tutorials
- In class:
- Astrobaki, Syllabus, Office Hours
- Getting accounts (premade by Bill Boyd, change password with
`passwd`command) - Lab access (see Getting Started in the Undergraduate Radio Lab)
- Class philosophy and workflow
- Nyquist Sampling and aliasing
- Fourier Transform
- ADC Quantization
- Lab Hardware
- PicoScope 2206a
- Raspberry Pi + NESDR Smart

- Data Challenge
- Lecture 1 Zoom recording (2021 is here)
- Lecture 2 Zoom recording (2021 is here)

#### Lab 1, Week 2 (Jan 26): DSB and SSB Mixers[edit]

- Theory and Background:
- Demos and Tutorials
- In class:
- Lecture 3 Zoom recording (2021 is here)
- Lecture 4: Show and Tell
- Lecture: Introduction to DSB and SSB Mixers
- Show and Tell (10m per group)

#### Lab 1, Week 3 (Feb 1): More Mixers, and Lab Reports[edit]

- Theory and Background
- LaTeX
- Introduction to Python and Plotting, second pass
- LaTex Template Template you may use for your lab report

- In Class:
- Lecture: One more pass on Convolution Theorem, Heterodyne Mixers, and DFTs
- Lecture 5
- Lecture 6
- Show and Tell
- Writing Lab Reports

- Lab 1 Due Feb 8, 1:30p

### Lab 2 (Astronomy with the 21cm Line; Some Microwave Electronics), due Mar 1, 1:30p[edit]

#### Lab 2, Week 1 (Feb 8): 21cm Line and Waveguides[edit]

- Theory and Background:
- Demos and Tutorials
- Python Tutorial Part 3: Functions, Modules, and Objects
- Matrix Math with Numpy
- Doppler Corrections, ugradio.doppler

- In class:

#### Lab 2, Week 2 (Feb 15): Collect and Analyze Data[edit]

- Theory and Background
- Demos and Tutorials
- In Class:
- Show and Tell
- Waveguides, Transmission Lines, and Rope
- Fitting Gaussians and Polynomials, ugradio.gauss
- Lecture 9
- Lecture 10

#### Lab 2, Week 3 (Feb 22): Write Lab Report[edit]

- Theory and Background
- In Class:
- Chi-Square Jupyter Notebook
- Show and Tell
- Least Squares Part 2
- Lecture 11

- Lab 2 Due Mar 1, 1:30p

### Lab 3 (Radio Interferometry at X Band), due Apr 5, 1:00p[edit]

#### Lab 3 Week 1 (Mar 1): Interferometer[edit]

- Theory and Background
- In Class:
- Tour of Rooftop Interferometer
- Exercise Ball Coordinates
- Interferometry with Strings
- Lecture 12
- Lecture 13

#### Lab 3 Week 2 (Mar 8): Collect and Analyze Data[edit]

- Theory and Background
- In Class:
- Show and Tell
- Controlling the Telescope
- Tracking the Sun
- Scheduling Observations

- Lecture Links

#### Lab 3 Week 3 (Mar 15): Collect and Analyze Data[edit]

- Theory and Background
- In Class:
- Show and Tell
- Linear Least-Squares in Python
- Minimizing Chi-Square]
- Noise in Observations

- Lecture Links

#### No class (Mar 23, 26)[edit]

#### Lab 3 Week 4 (Mar 29): Write Lab Report[edit]

- Theory and Background
- In Class:
- Show and Tell
- Photon bucket demo

- Lecture Links
- Lab 3 Due Apr 6, 1:30p

### Lab 4 (Mapping the HI Line: the Galaxy and Supershells), due May 3, 1:30p[edit]

#### Useful Links[edit]

#### Lab 4 Week 1 (Apr 5): Leuschner Dish[edit]

- Theory and Background
- In Class:
- Trip to Leuschner: Class will go later than usual
- drive mechanism (how the dish moves)
- feed (notice probes) and cables
- IF setup (one channel for OH, one for HI)
- interacting with a CASPER spectrometer
- pointing control
- spatial sampling with dish

- Lecture Links

#### Lab 4 Week 2 (Apr 12): Collect and Analyze Data[edit]

- Theory and Background
- In Class:
- Show and Tell
- spatial sampling with a dish
- interpolation
- projection

- Lecture Links

#### Lab 4 Week 3 (Apr 19): Collect and Analyze Data[edit]

- Theory and Background
- In Class:
- Show and Tell
- close-out plan
- computing doppler width for a line of sight (assuming circular motion)
- calibrating spectra
- converting spectra to hydrogen

- Lecture Links
- Lab 4 Lecture 5 (Tuesday 4/21; access 7f!o&=J9)
- Lab 4 Lecture 6 (Thursday 4/23): share day; no recording

#### Lab 4 Week 4 (Apr 26): Write Lab Report[edit]

- Theory and Background
- In Class:
- Show and Tell
- displaying information in image form
- Lab 4 Due May 3, 1:30p

- Lecture Links

## Unused but Useful?[edit]

- Radiometer Equation
- Quantization and Rounding
- Reciprocity Theorem
- Dipole Antennas
- Impedance of Free Space
- Radiometer Equation Applied to Telescopes
- Radiometer Equation Applied to Interferometers
- Fringe Stopping
- Direction Dependent Beams
- Self Calibration
- Flux Calibration
- Gridding
- Earth Rotation Synthesis
- Delay Imaging