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Reference Material

  • Horowitz & Hill, The Art of Electronics, 2nd Ed., Ch. 2

Transistor Types

There are two broad classes of transistors: Bipolar Junction Transistors (BJTs), which are often used in discrete analog circuits and can typically provide higher gain over wider bandwidths, and Field Effect Transistors (FETs), which are sometimes used in front-end amplifiers because of their lower noise figures (even though they typically provide less gain over narrower bandwidths than BJTs), and are often used to act like a voltage-controlled switch, such as they do in almost all digital processors today.

Bipolar Junction Transistors

BJT transistors have 3 terminals: the emitter, the base, and the collector. Broadly speaking, a current to/from the base (for NPN/PNP-type transistors, respectively, as described below) is used to control the flow of charge from the collector to the emitter. As long as a couple of rules are followed, the behavior of BJTs is pretty straight-forward. These rules are different for NPN and PNP transistors.

For an NPN transistor, the rules are:

Npn transistor.png

An NPN bipolar junction transistor

  1. In order to conduct, the voltage difference between the collector and the emitter () must be above a certain threshold (say, ).
  2. In order to conduct, the voltage difference between the base and emitter () must be above a certain threshold (say, ).
  3. Once it is conducting, the current flowing from the base () causes a current to flow from collector to emitter (), amplified by a factor .


is often in the range of 60-100, but can vary a lot from part to part.

For PNP transistors, the rules are similar, except that the emitter is now must be at a higher voltage than the collector, and the base must be at a lower voltage than the emitter:

Pnp transistor.png

A PNP bipolar junction transistor

  1. must be above, say, 0.2 V, to conduct.
  2. I) must be above, say 0.7 V.
  3. .

The trick to designing circuits using BJTs is to use these 3 rules to effectively regulate when and how much the transistor conducts, based on a signal applied to the base. Because varies so much between transistors, it is considered poor practice to rely on being a particular value. Rather, as is discussed in more detail with regard to amplifiers, it is better to use resistors and capacitors in circuits that regulate gain to a value less than on the basis of the first two rules.

Field Effect Transistors (FETs)

Fet transistor.png


All FETs have gate, drain, and source terminals that correspond roughly to the base, collector, and emitter of BJTs. FETs have a very high input resistance, on the order of 100M or more. This makes it effectively a voltage-controlled device, with a high degree of isolation between input and output. FETs have n-channel and p-channel varieties, which are analogous to the NPN and PNP types of bipolar junction transistors.

Fet conduction curve.png

as a function of , for various (linearly spaced) values

FETs have essentially three operating modes that relate to a threshold voltage :

  1. Cutoff: causes no charge to flow from drain to source.
  2. Ohmic: and causes the FET to behave like a resistor whose value is controlled by .
  3. Active: and causes the FET to conduct, with the current being independent of , but sensitive to .



Reducing Loading

Sourcing Current

Switching Digital Signals

Nand fet.png

A NAND logic gate (“not and”) built from FETs