Difference between revisions of "Radiative Processes in Astrophysics"

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(Created page with '== The Black Body == A blackbody is the simplest source: it absorbs and reemits radiation with 100% efficiency. The frequency content of blackbody radiation is given by the ''P…')
 
 
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== The Black Body ==
+
An introduction to the basic physics of astronomy and astrophysics at the graduate level. Principles of energy transfer by radiation. Elements of classical and quantum theory of photon emission; bremsstrahlung, synchrotron radiation. Compton scattering, plasma effects, atomic and molecular electromagnetic transitions. With applications to current research into astrophysical phenomena.
  
A blackbody is the simplest source: it absorbs and reemits radiation with
+
These are a collection of lectures covering topics in an introductory graduate astrophysics course on radiative processes.  The subject matter is loosely drawn from [http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1981PEPI...25..432L Radiative Processes in Astrophysics] by Rybicki & Lightman.
100% efficiency.  The frequency content of blackbody radiation is given by
 
the ''Planck Function'':
 
  
<math>
+
At the end of the semester, each student will develop one new lecture on a subject of their choice to add to this website.
B_\nu=\frac{h\nu}{\lambda^2}{2\over(e^{\frac{h\nu}{kT}}-1)}
 
</math>
 
  
<math>
+
=== Class Code Repository ===
B_\nu=\frac{2h\nu^3}{c^2(e^{\frac{h\nu}{kT}}-1)}\ne B_\lambda
+
[http://github.com/AaronParsons/astro207 http://github.com/AaronParsons/astro207]
</math>
 
  
=== Derivation ===
+
=== Syllabus ===
 +
* [https://github.com/AaronParsons/astro207/blob/main/syllabus.docx Syllabus]
 +
* [https://github.com/AaronParsons/astro207/blob/main/constants/constants.pdf Sheet of constants and equations]
  
The # density of photons having frequency between <math>\nu</math> and <math>\nu+d\nu</math> has
+
=== Useful External References ===
to equal the # density of phase-space cells in that region, multiplied by
+
* Rybicki and Lightman,  [http://books.google.com/books?id=eswe2StAspsC&printsec=frontcover&dq=radiative+processes+in+astrophysics&hl=en&sa=X&ei=wkcGT-6HMISTiQKo3IQa&ved=0CDgQ6AEwAA#v=onepage&q=radiative%20processes%20in%20astrophysics&f=false'' '''Radiative Processes in Astrophysics'''] (course reference)
the occupation # per cellThus:
+
* Mihalas and Mihalas, [http://books.google.com/books?id=f75C_GN9KZwC&printsec=frontcover&source=gbs_ge_summary_r&cad=0#v=onepage&q&f=false '''Foundations of Radiation Hydrodynamics''']
 +
* Osterbrock and Ferland, [http://books.google.com/books?id=6GIXMFpET4cC&printsec=frontcover&dq=osterbrock&hl=en&sa=X&ei=OUgGT8-0MuOZiAKOmoUS&ved=0CDEQ6AEwAA#v=onepage&q=osterbrock&f=false '''Astrophysics of Gaseous Nebulae and Active Galactic Nuclei''']
 +
* Shu, '[http://books.google.com/books/about/The_Physics_of_Astrophysics_Radiation.html?id=BxE1AQAAIAAJ, '''The Physics of Astrophysics, Volume I: Radiation''']
 +
* Longair, [http://books.google.com/books?id=KGe3FVbDNk4C&printsec=frontcover&dq=longair+high+energy+astrophysics&hl=en&ei=2m4QT5GgEuTWiALvkdWjDQ&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=book-thumbnail&resnum=1&ved=0CDQQ6wEwAA#v=onepage&q=longair%20high%20energy%20astrophysics&f=false, '''High Energy Astrophysics''']
 +
* Mihalas, [http://www.nhn.ou.edu/~baron/ast4303/index.html '''Stellar Atmospheres''']
 +
* Rutten, [http://ntc0.lbl.gov/~kasen/references/rutten_stellar_atmospheres.pdf '''Radiative Transfer in Stellar Atmospheres''']
 +
* Eddie Baron's [http://www.nhn.ou.edu/~baron/grk_lectures/index.html GRK Lectures on Radiation Transport]
 +
* Tony Readhead's [http://www.astro.caltech.edu/~ycao/ay121/Ay121/notes.html Notes]
 +
* Feynman's [http://www.feynmanlectures.caltech.edu/II_toc.html Lectures on Physics, Volume II]
  
<math>n_\nu d\nu=\frac{4\pi\nu^2d\nu}{c^3}\frac{2}{e^{\frac{h\nu}{kT}}-1}</math>
+
== Topics by Date ==
  
However,
+
====(Aug. 26) Radiative Quantities (RL 1.1-1.3; Mil 1.1-1.3)====
 +
* class mechanics
 +
** syllabus
 +
** references
 +
*** Rybicki & Lightman
 +
*** Astrobaki: learn better by teaching
 +
** tools for figuring stuff out
 +
*** theoretical derivation
 +
*** order-of-magnitude estimation
 +
*** physical intuition (hands-on modeling, analogies)
 +
*** numerical simulation
 +
** programming
 +
*** [[Python Installation and Basic Programming]]
 +
*** [[Revision Control]] (class repository)
 +
*** [[Jupyter Notebooks]] (for visualizations and collaborating)
 +
* Topics
 +
** [[Specific Intensity]]
 +
* Activities
 +
** [https://github.com/AaronParsons/astro207/blob/main/quiz_2021/01_Activity_Sheet.ipynb Activity Sheet 1] (on [http://datahub.berkeley.edu/user-redirect/interact?account=AaronParsons&repo=astro207&branch=main&path=quiz_2021/01_Activity_Sheet.ipyn datahub.berkeley.edu])
 +
** [https://github.com/AaronParsons/astro207/blob/main/quiz_2021/01_Activity_Sheet_Answers.ipynb Activity Sheet 1 solutions]
  
<math>h\nu\frac{n_\nu c}{4\pi}=I_\nu=B_\nu</math>
+
====(Aug. 31) radiative transport (RL 1.4; Mil 2.1-2.2)====
 +
* Topics
 +
** [[Radiative Transfer Equation]]
 +
** [[Optical Depth]]
 +
* Activities
 +
** [https://github.com/AaronParsons/astro207/blob/main/quiz_2021/Quiz02.ipynb Activity Sheet 2]
 +
** [https://github.com/AaronParsons/astro207/blob/main/quiz_2021/Quiz02-ans.ipynb Activity Sheet 2 solutions]
 +
** sliding pennies
 +
* [https://github.com/AaronParsons/astro207/blob/main/ps_2021/ps01.pdf Problem Set 1] assigned
 +
** [https://github.com/AaronParsons/astro207/blob/main/vega_spectrum.dat vega_spectrum.dat]
 +
** [https://github.com/AaronParsons/astro207/blob/main/bessel_V.dat bessel_V.dat]
  
so we have it. In the limit that <math>h\nu\gg kT</math>:
+
==== (Sep. 2) Maxwell's Equations and Plane Waves ====
 +
* Topics
 +
** [[Maxwell Equations]] for Electromagnetic Waves
 +
** [[Electromagnetic Plane Waves]]
 +
** [[Energy Density]] of Electromagnetic Waves
 +
** [[Larmor Formula]]
 +
** [[Fourier Transform]]
 +
* Activities
 +
** [https://github.com/AaronParsons/astro207/blob/main/quiz_2021/Quiz03.ipynb Activity Sheet 3] (on [http://datahub.berkeley.edu/user-redirect/interact?account=AaronParsons&repo=astro207&branch=main&path=quiz_2021/Quiz03.ipynb datahub.berkeley.edu])
 +
** [https://github.com/AaronParsons/astro207/blob/main/quiz_2021/Quiz03-ans.ipynb Activity Sheet 3 solutions]
 +
** [https://github.com/AaronParsons/astro207/blob/main/notebooks/Larmor%20Radiation.ipynb Larmor Demo]
 +
** Impedance of free space
  
<math>B_\nu\approx\frac{2h\nu^3}{c^2}e^{-\frac{h\nu}{kT}}</math>
+
====(Sep. 7) scattering and absorption (RL 1.4, 1.7; Mil 2.1-2.2)====
 +
* Topics:
 +
** [[Basic Scattering]]
 +
** [[Central Limit Theorem]]
 +
** [[Random Walks]]
 +
** [[Degeneracy]]
 +
* Activities
 +
** [https://github.com/AaronParsons/astro207/blob/main/quiz_2021/Quiz04.ipynb Activity Sheet 4] (on [http://datahub.berkeley.edu/user-redirect/interact?account=AaronParsons&repo=astro207&branch=main&path=quiz_2021/Quiz04.ipynb datahub.berkeley.edu])
 +
** photon diffusion
 +
** high beams in fog
 +
* [https://github.com/AaronParsons/astro207/blob/main/ps_2021/ps02.pdf Problem Set 2] Assigned
  
If <math>h\nu\ll kT</math>:
+
==== (Sep. 9) thermodynamic equilibrium (RL 1.5)  ====
 +
* Topics
 +
** [[Black-Body Radiation]] (and Kirchoff's Law)
 +
** [[Boltzmann distribution]]
 +
** [[Maxwellian velocity distribution]]
 +
** [[Local Thermodynamic Equilibrium]]
 +
* Activities
 +
** [https://github.com/AaronParsons/astro207/blob/main/quiz_2021/Quiz05.ipynb Activity Sheet 5] (on [http://datahub.berkeley.edu/user-redirect/interact?account=AaronParsons&repo=astro207&branch=main&path=quiz_2021/Quiz05.ipynb datahub.berkeley.edu])
 +
** flipping pennies, rolling dice
 +
** types of temperature
  
<math>B_\nu\approx\frac{2kT}{\lambda^2}</math>
+
==== (Sep. 14) semi-classical hydrogen ====
 +
* Topics:
 +
** [[Classical Bohr Atom]]
 +
* Activities
 +
** [https://github.com/AaronParsons/astro207/blob/main/quiz_2021/Quiz06.ipynb Activity Sheet 6] (on [http://datahub.berkeley.edu/user-redirect/interact?account=AaronParsons&repo=astro207&branch=main&path=quiz_2021/Quiz06.ipynb datahub.berkeley.edu])
 +
** rederivation
 +
** Rydberg
 +
** dipoles/quadrupoles
 +
* [https://github.com/AaronParsons/astro207/blob/main/ps_2021/ps03.pdf Problem Set 3] Assigned
  
Note that this tail peaks at <math>\sim\tfrac{3kT}{h}</math>. Also,
+
====  (Sep. 16) Einstein coefficients====
<math>\nu B_\nu=\lambda B_\lambda</math>
+
* Topics:
 +
** [[Einstein Coefficients]]
 +
** [[Radiative Equilibrium]]
 +
* Activities
 +
** [https://github.com/AaronParsons/astro207/blob/main/quiz_2021/Quiz07.ipynb Activity Sheet 7] (on [http://datahub.berkeley.edu/user-redirect/interact?account=AaronParsons&repo=astro207&branch=main&path=quiz_2021/Quiz07.ipynb datahub.berkeley.edu])
 +
** estimating Einstein A for Ly-alpha
 +
** effective photon absorption crosssection
 +
 
 +
==== (Sep. 21) spectral line broadening====
 +
* Topics
 +
** [[Line Profile Functions]]
 +
** [[Zeeman splitting]]
 +
* Activities
 +
** [https://github.com/AaronParsons/astro207/blob/main/quiz_2021/Quiz08.ipynb Activity Sheet 8] (on [http://datahub.berkeley.edu/user-redirect/interact?account=AaronParsons&repo=astro207&branch=main&path=quiz_2021/Quiz08.ipynb datahub.berkeley.edu])
 +
** what can you learn from a spectral line
 +
* [https://github.com/AaronParsons/astro207/blob/main/ps_2021/ps04.pdf Problem Set 4] Assigned
 +
 
 +
==== (Sep. 23) radiation from accelerating charges (RL 3.3-3.4)====
 +
* Topics
 +
** [[Estimating Atomic Transition Strengths]]
 +
** radiative dipole transitions
 +
** photoexcitation cross-section
 +
* Activities
 +
** [https://github.com/AaronParsons/astro207/blob/main/quiz_2021/Quiz09.ipynb Activity Sheet 9] (on [http://datahub.berkeley.edu/user-redirect/interact?account=AaronParsons&repo=astro207&branch=main&path=quiz_2021/Quiz09.ipynb datahub.berkeley.edu])
 +
** Einstein A for He+
 +
 
 +
==== (Sep. 28) molecular lines (RL 11) ====
 +
* Topics
 +
** [[Atomic and Molecular Quantum Numbers]]
 +
** [[Rotational Transitions]]
 +
* Activities
 +
** CO Lecture
 +
* No Problem Set this week
 +
 
 +
==== (Sep. 30) rovibrational transitions (RL 11) ====
 +
* Topics
 +
** [[Rovibrational Transitions]]
 +
* Activities
 +
** [https://github.com/AaronParsons/astro207/blob/main/quiz_2021/Quiz11.ipynb Activity Sheet 11] (on [http://datahub.berkeley.edu/user-redirect/interact?account=AaronParsons&repo=astro207&branch=main&path=quiz_2021/Quiz11.ipynb datahub.berkeley.edu])
 +
** Cooling with CO
 +
 
 +
====(Oct. 5)  masers ====
 +
* Topics
 +
** [[Masers]]
 +
* Activities
 +
** masers as transistors
 +
** laser pointers
 +
* [https://github.com/AaronParsons/astro207/blob/main/ps_2021/ps05.pdf Problem Set 5] assigned
 +
 
 +
==== (Oct. 7) collisional excitations ====
 +
* Topics:
 +
** [[Detailed Balance]]
 +
** [[Collisional Excitations]]
 +
* Activities
 +
** [https://github.com/AaronParsons/astro207/blob/main/quiz_2021/Quiz12.ipynb Activity Sheet 12] (on [http://datahub.berkeley.edu/user-redirect/interact?account=AaronParsons&repo=astro207&branch=main&path=quiz_2021/Quiz12.ipynb datahub.berkeley.edu])
 +
** more CO molecular clouds
 +
** collisional line-driven cooling
 +
 
 +
==== (Oct. 12) free-free emission====
 +
* Topics
 +
** [[Thermal Bremsstrahlung]] (RL 5.1-5.3)
 +
** [[Opacity]]
 +
** [[Kramer's Opacity]]
 +
* Activities
 +
** free-free polarization
 +
** simulating a free-free interaction
 +
* [https://github.com/AaronParsons/astro207/blob/main/ps_2021/ps06.pdf Problem Set 6] assigned
 +
 
 +
==== (Oct. 14) charged cross-sections (RL 1.7-1.8; Mil 2.3-2.5)====
 +
* Topics:
 +
** [[Coulomb Focusing]]
 +
** [[Thomson Scattering]]
 +
* Activities
 +
** [https://github.com/AaronParsons/astro207/blob/main/quiz_2021/Quiz13.ipynb Activity Sheet 13] (on [http://datahub.berkeley.edu/user-redirect/interact?account=AaronParsons&repo=astro207&branch=main&path=quiz_2021/Quiz13.ipynb datahub.berkeley.edu])
 +
** electrons in the IGM
 +
 
 +
==== (Oct. 19) bound-free transitions ====
 +
* Topics
 +
** [[Milne Relation]]
 +
** [[Saha Equation]]
 +
* Activities
 +
** stromgren spheres
 +
* [https://github.com/AaronParsons/astro207/blob/main/ps_2021/ps07.pdf Problem Set 7] assigned
 +
 
 +
==== (Oct. 21) LTE and non-LTE ====
 +
* Topics
 +
** [[Recombination Coefficients]]
 +
** [[Review of Equilibria]]
 +
* Activities
 +
** [https://github.com/AaronParsons/astro207/blob/main/quiz_2021/Quiz14.ipynb Activity Sheet 14] (on [http://datahub.berkeley.edu/user-redirect/interact?account=AaronParsons&repo=astro207&branch=main&path=quiz_2021/Quiz14.ipynb datahub.berkeley.edu])
 +
** estimating recombination coefficients
 +
** work out in detail redshift of recombination
 +
 
 +
==== (Oct. 26)  plasma effects====
 +
* Topics
 +
** [[Plasma Frequency]]
 +
** [[dispersion measure]] (RL 8.1)
 +
** polarization
 +
** [[Faraday rotation]] (RL 8.1-8.2)
 +
** [[Stokes parameters]]
 +
* Activities
 +
** start de-dispersion coding
 +
* [https://github.com/AaronParsons/astro207/blob/main/ps_2021/ps08.pdf Problem Set 8] assigned
 +
** [https://github.com/AaronParsons/astro207/blob/main/pulsar.dat pulsar.dat]
 +
 
 +
====  (Oct. 28) compton scattering ====
 +
* Topics
 +
** [[Lorentz transformations]]
 +
** [[Doppler shift]]
 +
** radiation from relativistic charges (RL 4.1, 4.2, 4.8; Grif 10.1)
 +
** [[Compton Scattering]]
 +
* Activities
 +
** [https://github.com/AaronParsons/astro207/blob/main/quiz_2021/Quiz15.ipynb Activity Sheet 15] (on [http://datahub.berkeley.edu/user-redirect/interact?account=AaronParsons&repo=astro207&branch=main&path=quiz_2021/Quiz15.ipynb datahub.berkeley.edu])
 +
** relativistic intuition, velocity raptor
 +
** CMB coupling via compton
 +
 
 +
==== (Nov. 2) Inverse Compton scattering====
 +
* Topics:
 +
** [[Inverse Compton Scattering]]
 +
** [[SZ Effect]] (RL 7.1-7.5)
 +
* Activities
 +
** single scattering versus ensemble scattering
 +
** compton saturation
 +
* No problem set
 +
 
 +
==== (Nov. 4) Synchrotron Introduction ====
 +
* Topics:
 +
** [[Introduction to Synchrotron Radiation and Relativistic Beaming]]
 +
<!-- ** [[Synchrotron Frequency]]
 +
** [[Synchrotron Polarization]] -->
 +
* Activities
 +
** [https://github.com/AaronParsons/astro207/blob/main/quiz_2021/Quiz16.ipynb Activity Sheet 16] (on [http://datahub.berkeley.edu/user-redirect/interact?account=AaronParsons&repo=astro207&branch=main&path=quiz_2021/Quiz16.ipynb datahub.berkeley.edu])
 +
** beaming, superluminal motion, monte carlo compton
 +
 
 +
==== (Nov. 9) Synchrotron Radiation ====
 +
* Topics
 +
** [[Synchrotron Radiation]]
 +
<!-- ** [[Single Electron Power Spectrum]]
 +
** [[Synchrotron Spectrum]] (RL 6.1-6.8)
 +
** [[Effect of Cooling Time on Synchrotron Spectra]] -->
 +
* Activities
 +
** re-deriving synchrotron spectrum
 +
** phenomenological description of synchrotron decay
 +
* [https://github.com/AaronParsons/astro207/blob/main/ps_2021/ps09.pdf Problem Set 9] assigned
 +
 
 +
==== (Nov. 11) No Class (Veterans day) ====
 +
 
 +
==== (Nov. 16)  Synchrotron Self-Interactions ====
 +
* Topics
 +
** [[Synchrotron Self-Interactions]]
 +
<!-- ** [[Synchrotron Self-Compton]]
 +
** [[Compton Catastrophe]] -->
 +
* Activities
 +
** [https://github.com/AaronParsons/astro207/blob/main/quiz_2021/Quiz17.ipynb Activity Sheet 17] (on [http://datahub.berkeley.edu/user-redirect/interact?account=AaronParsons&repo=astro207&branch=main&path=quiz_2021/Quiz17.ipynb datahub.berkeley.edu])
 +
** reading SSC spectra, inferring castrophe
 +
 
 +
====  (Nov. 18) dust and grains====
 +
* Topics:
 +
** [[Dust Absorption and Scattering]]
 +
** dust formation/sublimation
 +
** [[Poynting-Robertson Effect]]
 +
* Activities
 +
* [https://github.com/AaronParsons/astro207/blob/main/ps_2021/ps10.pdf Problem Set 10] assigned
 +
 
 +
==== (Nov. 23) No Class ====
 +
 
 +
==== (Nov. 25) No Class ====
 +
 
 +
==== (Dec. 1) radiative diffusion ====
 +
* Topics:
 +
** [[Radiative Diffusion]]
 +
** bolometric radiative equilibrium
 +
** greenhouse effect
 +
* Activities
 +
**
 +
 
 +
==== (Dec. 2) Review ====
 +
* Review
 +
 
 +
== Misc Topics ==
 +
** [[21cm Transition]]
 +
** [[Wouthuysen Field effect]]
 +
** [[Radiative Transfer Codes]]
 +
** [[Frequency Redistribution in Non-Coherent Scattering]]
 +
** [[Cherenkov Radiation]]
 +
** [[Monte Carlo Methods]]
 +
** [[Numerical Methods for Ordinary Differential Equations]]
 +
 
 +
== Legacy Lecture Notes ==
 +
# [[Radiation Lecture 01]]
 +
# [[Radiation Lecture 02]]
 +
# [[Radiation Lecture 03]]
 +
# [[Radiation Lecture 04]]
 +
# [[Radiation Lecture 05]]
 +
# [[Radiation Lecture 06]]
 +
# [[Radiation Lecture 07]]
 +
# [[Radiation Lecture 08]]
 +
# [[Radiation Lecture 09]]
 +
# [[Radiation Lecture 10]]
 +
# [[Radiation Lecture 11]]
 +
# [[Radiation Lecture 12]]
 +
# [[Radiation Lecture 13]]
 +
# [[Radiation Lecture 14]]
 +
# [[Radiation Lecture 15]]
 +
# [[Radiation Lecture 16]]
 +
# [[Radiation Lecture 17]]
 +
# [[Radiation Lecture 18]]
 +
# [[Radiation Lecture 19]]
 +
# [[Radiation Lecture 20]]
 +
# [[Radiation Lecture 21]]
 +
# [[Radiation Lecture 22]]
 +
# [[Radiation Lecture 23]]
 +
# [[Radiation Lecture 24]]
 +
# [[Radiation Lecture 25]]
 +
# [[Radiation Lecture 26]]

Latest revision as of 10:27, 2 September 2021

An introduction to the basic physics of astronomy and astrophysics at the graduate level. Principles of energy transfer by radiation. Elements of classical and quantum theory of photon emission; bremsstrahlung, synchrotron radiation. Compton scattering, plasma effects, atomic and molecular electromagnetic transitions. With applications to current research into astrophysical phenomena.

These are a collection of lectures covering topics in an introductory graduate astrophysics course on radiative processes. The subject matter is loosely drawn from Radiative Processes in Astrophysics by Rybicki & Lightman.

At the end of the semester, each student will develop one new lecture on a subject of their choice to add to this website.

Class Code Repository[edit]

http://github.com/AaronParsons/astro207

Syllabus[edit]

Useful External References[edit]

Topics by Date[edit]

(Aug. 26) Radiative Quantities (RL 1.1-1.3; Mil 1.1-1.3)[edit]

(Aug. 31) radiative transport (RL 1.4; Mil 2.1-2.2)[edit]

(Sep. 2) Maxwell's Equations and Plane Waves[edit]

(Sep. 7) scattering and absorption (RL 1.4, 1.7; Mil 2.1-2.2)[edit]

(Sep. 9) thermodynamic equilibrium (RL 1.5)[edit]

(Sep. 14) semi-classical hydrogen[edit]

(Sep. 16) Einstein coefficients[edit]

(Sep. 21) spectral line broadening[edit]

(Sep. 23) radiation from accelerating charges (RL 3.3-3.4)[edit]

(Sep. 28) molecular lines (RL 11)[edit]

(Sep. 30) rovibrational transitions (RL 11)[edit]

(Oct. 5) masers[edit]

(Oct. 7) collisional excitations[edit]

(Oct. 12) free-free emission[edit]

(Oct. 14) charged cross-sections (RL 1.7-1.8; Mil 2.3-2.5)[edit]

(Oct. 19) bound-free transitions[edit]

(Oct. 21) LTE and non-LTE[edit]

(Oct. 26) plasma effects[edit]

(Oct. 28) compton scattering[edit]

(Nov. 2) Inverse Compton scattering[edit]

(Nov. 4) Synchrotron Introduction[edit]

(Nov. 9) Synchrotron Radiation[edit]

(Nov. 11) No Class (Veterans day)[edit]

(Nov. 16) Synchrotron Self-Interactions[edit]

(Nov. 18) dust and grains[edit]

(Nov. 23) No Class[edit]

(Nov. 25) No Class[edit]

(Dec. 1) radiative diffusion[edit]

(Dec. 2) Review[edit]

  • Review

Misc Topics[edit]

Legacy Lecture Notes[edit]

  1. Radiation Lecture 01
  2. Radiation Lecture 02
  3. Radiation Lecture 03
  4. Radiation Lecture 04
  5. Radiation Lecture 05
  6. Radiation Lecture 06
  7. Radiation Lecture 07
  8. Radiation Lecture 08
  9. Radiation Lecture 09
  10. Radiation Lecture 10
  11. Radiation Lecture 11
  12. Radiation Lecture 12
  13. Radiation Lecture 13
  14. Radiation Lecture 14
  15. Radiation Lecture 15
  16. Radiation Lecture 16
  17. Radiation Lecture 17
  18. Radiation Lecture 18
  19. Radiation Lecture 19
  20. Radiation Lecture 20
  21. Radiation Lecture 21
  22. Radiation Lecture 22
  23. Radiation Lecture 23
  24. Radiation Lecture 24
  25. Radiation Lecture 25
  26. Radiation Lecture 26