# Cosmology Lecture 12

### Wrapping Up Massive

So far we’ve discussed (1), (2), and (3) below:

- Direct Lab upper limits.
- oscillations
- Supernova
- Cosmology (PS #5): There is a relic background from 1 second after the Big Bang,

We calculated that the neutrino mass required to close the universe is:

(for ). This puts a pretty tight limit on the mass of neutrinos, given that we observe an open universe. The assumption we made about mass allowed us to make the assumption that ’s were relativistic when they decoupled from the rest of the universe.

If , then the # density of neutrinos will have a suppression, since will annihilate to . Lee-Weinberg (1977) showed that for . Since this is a square function, there are two values for which . If we want , we have that either or .

### Cold Dark Matter (CDM)

The two best known candidates for CDM are:

- WIMPs (Weakly Interacting Massive Particles): The lightest super-symmetric particle is in the range of 10-100 GeV.
- Axions: These were “introduced” to resolve the
*strong CP*problem in QCD. The problem was that non-perturbative effects in QCD led to a CP,T,P violation. Which would predict an excessively large electric dipole moment for the neutron. Axions were invented to suppress this effect. In terms of the Lagrangian density:

The CP violating term predicted an electric dipole moment of the neutron of . Experimental results show that . Thus, the axion mass required to suppress this is . Why are we calling these cold? Clearly, these are still relativistic particles even today. However, since axions couple with photons only very weakly, they were never really in thermal equilibrium.

### The Lumpy Universe: Structure Formation

The universe has a dichotomy between being initially nearly smooth (as per the CMB), and quite lumpy (as in galaxy clusters). The general belief is that the lumpiness of the universe is caused by small perturbations amplified by gravitational instability. We will concern ourselves with the time-evolution of small perturbations to *uniform* (Robertson-Walker-Friedmann mode) parameters such as (density), (pressure), (fluid velocity), and (gravitational potential).